Hashtags in the News October 2015 #SayHerName #KeishaJenkins

An annotated bibliography created on 10/18/2015


  1. Keisha Jenkins was a twenty two year old woman from Philadelphia who was brutally beaten and shot to death on October 6, 2015. There were believed to have been five or six men involved in the attack of Jenkins, and after beating her, they shot her twice in the back. Jenkins was an African American, transgender woman, yet her family made public statements stating that she was a man, and she went by Stephen Jenkins. Her sister, Ronia, stated that she only dressed like a girl on occasion. The cause of Jenkins’ murder is still under investigation, and so are the suspects of her murder. The LGBTQ+ community is probing for further investigation as to whether or not this was a hate crime against the African American LGBTQ+ community.
  2. To find out if Jenkins' murder can be considered a hate crime, this case will have to go through a trial and there will ultimately be one outcome. But, regardless of whether or not it can be considered a hate crime, my research will attempt to answer the following questions: How has the LGBTQ+ community reached out to nonmembers by supporting and accepting members like Ms. Jenkins? What about Jenkins' case promotes acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community to society as a whole? Has violence within the LGBTQ+ community raised awareness outside of community, or are there now more questioning members due to the violence associated with "coming out?" I will provide the answers to these questions using the following sources in an annotated bibliography..
  3. This is an official news release of the murder of Jenkins. This has all of the first hand accounts of information that I will need to put into my research. This provoking news story will allow me to segway into the popositions of my research. I will use this information to give the background story before I go into the statistical information and scholarly research that will answer my hypothesis and questions.
  4. Schilt and Westbrook conducted this qualitative study between the years of 2004-2007, which analyzed transgender men and women that were going through a transition in a public workplace over the three year span of the study. This case study also covered an in-depth analysis of terms used to describe members of the transgender community between the years of 1990 and 2005. The analysis of these artifacts contributed to the study because of the way that the media conveyed the image of transgender men and women. In these study, Schilt and Westbrook define societal expectations, and the way that these people fit into a society that so strictly defines what is masculine and what is feminine. Schilt and Westbrook write, "Heterosexual expectations are embedded in social institutions,“guarantee [ing] that some people will have more class status, power, and privilege than others” (Ingraham 1994, 212)." This qualitative study defines what it means to be a transgender man or woman, and the way that these people fit into our confined, hard-edged, American society. This information will contribute to the beginning of my research because I'd like to provide my readers with background information on what it means to be transgender in America in the twenty-first century. This artifact will help me to exemplify the societal confines that transgender men and women must live with each day.
  5. Gruenewald and Kelley conducted this study in 2014 that examined 121 acts of anti LGBT homicides. The abstract of the study goes into depth about the LGBT community being more widely accepted in our society. It also goes into why these homicides needed to be examined stating, "The Anti-Violence Project recently found that there has been a trend of increasing homicides against the LGBT1community since 2007 (National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs [NCAVP], 2012). Despite decreases in anti-LGBT violence generally, the NCAVP recorded 30 anti-LGBT murders in 2011, the highest homicide number ever reported (NCAVP, 2012)." The study found that regardless of whether the victim of the homicide was individually targeted or this was just an act of rage, LGBT teens and young adults need to be further educated on how to keep safe in unknown environments. The study also concluded that this community, more than any, needs to be extra careful when participating in online communication or meeting these people in person because they are easily targeted. I think that this artifact could further my research because it goes into the growing statistics of homicides within the LGBT community within the past seven years and it explores the motives behind the murderers. This would be extremely important to see if the motives proved in this article align with the suspected motives of the criminal in the Keisha Jenkins case.
  6. This resource is a statistical chart that lays out the deaths of transgender people in the year 2014. These statistics prove that all but one of these people were Latino or African American. The article states, "The level of violence targeting transgender people, particularly transgender women of color, is a national crisis that the LGBT movement has a responsibility to confront,” said HRC President Chad Griffin. “This issue reveals how far we still have to go in order to ensure that all members of the LGBT community have equal access to basic dignity and fair treatment.” I think that this will be a useful resource for my research because although I'm focusing on the case of Keisha Jenkins, I would like some background statistics on other cases that took place recently this year, and this is an appalling statistic.
  7. This journal goes into the mental health implications of transgender men and women and how crimes made against them can have staggering affects on their mental health. These authors also go into the effects that hate crimes have on the LGBT community as a whole; these crimes result in suppression of true self and feelings. This article explores the implications that parents have on their children if they are LGBTQ+, if parents teach their children how to be resilient and be themselves, they have a much greater chance of not being affected by bullying that they may face. Under The Unique Aspects of LGBT Hate Crime Victimization, the authors go into detail about the family support system; if this system is not strong, it's likely that the victim of a crime will suppress their feelings and not come out to friends or family. And when LGBTQ teens are exposed to these crimes, they will be reluctant to come out. This information is vital to my research because it answers the question of: how can families and friends support questioning members of the community who are afraid or reluctant to come out due to the violence? Violence can deter young people or any people from coming out to their friends and families, and this provides insight on how to be a resource for your friends and family to coming out.
  8. GLAAD (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation) released this article that is backed with statistics that even though hate crimes are decreasing across the nation, hate murders are increasing, especially of people within the transgender community. These crimes are especially high and are believed to have reached twenty this year in the United States. Bolles states, "GLAAD encourages the media to continue to shine visibility on the violence such people continue to face and honor the humanity of the victims." This is an essential piece of information to add to my research because it shows the perspective of a the specific sub-community, the African American transgender sector of the LGBTQ+ community. I would like to add this quote as well as the ways that GLAAD encourages the media to shed light on these situations. This exemplifies the need for not only the statistical, but the empathetic awareness of these crimes.
  9. This was a qualitative study that surveyed 121 women, 80 men and 1 unidentified gender person. Through thorough questioning, the researchers found that there are more female supporters of the LGBT community than there are male. And, researchers found that more heterosexual people who participate in activist movements are friends of members of the community. However, many of these acts of activism are done in private (such as signing an online petition) because being a part of the LBGT community is still not a social "norm." (This study was conducted four years ago). Contrary to the researcher's hypothesis, empathetic thoughts and behaviors did not contribute to the activism for the community by nonmembers. In other words, supporters, (who are not not members of the community), may feel empathy for members of the LGBT community, however this is not what fuels nonmembers to become activists. This vital information can fit into my research in order to answer the question of: how is society promoting acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community? This study will adds credible fuel to my research base by helping to answer the essential piece of my puzzle. This piece is the piece that deals with nonmembers and their support and activism within the LGBT community.
  10. This journal defines the characteristics of a young adult that has the support system that they need to overcome the challenges that they may face growing up as a LGBT or Q+ individual. These authors stated that having close interpersonal relationships (with family especially), and keeping close, supportive friends are both factors that can contribute to wholesome mental health in a young adult. This article also identified the tragic losses that a young person can go through if they do not have this support system; these factors included weight gain, sexual risks taken, substance abuse and even chronic health conditions. The article borrowed evidence of what a support system is from a previous study stating, "One qualitative study with LGBT youth in the United States found that youth viewed community support as related to socializing, having access to LGBT-related information, and being introduced into the LGBT community (Nesmith, Burton, & Cosgrove, 1999). Similar to the findings that implicate LGBT community support as essential to outcomes for sexual minorities, access to a supportive community, social events, and sexuality-related information was found to be related to LGBT young people's self-esteem and well-being (e.g., D'Augelli & Hart, 1987)" These essential parts to this research journal are vital to my own research on this topic because it will add to my knowledge of how to prevent self-esteem issues and self-destruction among LGBTQ+ young adults. It will also add to the ascept of how to be an advocate for a friend or family member.
  11. In order to answer one of my research questions, and to have some background information on the broad acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community, I think that this is an important source to add to my research. This article is also not set in a personal environment, it's describing a corporate setting. This article explains that through thorough research, the author found that businesses and corporations are paving the way for lawmakers and citizens to become more accepting of the LGBTQ+ community. Written in 2014, this article explains that because marketing teams of corporations are on the forefront of what's accepted in our society, they're including more and more nondiscrimination policies to include same-sex households and trans men and women in their policies and plans. These corporations are realizing that, "One new gay customer doesn't drive away a straight one;" and they're realizing that the image of family is evolving in America. This process is helping to integrate the acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community into American society, and even make skeptics of this change conform to what the "norm" is now shifting to. This is essential to the acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community in society as a whole (rather than intimate settings).
  12. This journal delved into the oppressed feelings of the LGBTQ+ community. It focused on the ways that educators intervene or do not intervene and cause their students even more suppression. Most times, teachers choose to not intervene because their own personal lives can be at stake; schools and parents can get involved and this can lead to a twisted situation. But this constitutes for only one realm of the young adults' lives. If these young people are feeling oppressed due to their sexuality, the only way that the oppressors will stop is if they're confronted by the oppressee. "It is only when the oppressors relinquish their charity work and instead work tirelessly together with the oppressed in a true partnership toward a mission to liberate that authentic transformation takes place. Freire (1970) also warned that this working partnership between oppressed and oppressor is only successful when initiated by the oppressed and their allies, and as the oppressed fight..." This is an important idea to add to my research because this is another possible solution to form an allied group between LGBTQ+ community and non community members. It's also taking place in yet another realm of society- schools. Schools and youth years are some of the biggest contributing factors for our society's thoughts about the LGBTQ+ community.
  13. On June 25, 2015, when the Supreme Court ruled in favor gay marriage, this marked an influx in people coming out on their Facebook profiles. The rainbow filter on top of people's profile pictures became popular in support of gay rights. On coming out day, which was October fifteenth this year, the amount of people that came out was a remarkable 2.5 percent higher than last year's coming out day on October eleventh. These statistics are not only for members of the LGBTQ+ community, but the number of Facebook users that "liked" LGBTQ+ pages is reported to have raised 25% in the last year. This information is useful to my research because it shows the growth of acceptance of the community for non-members. This is one of my research questions and this information can contribute to my research.