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EDSA: Memories and Meanings, Timelines and Discussions

What happened in Edsa? What was it like to be there? What did it mean then and what does it mean now? Links from the interwebs.


  1. I. Prelude: What is a revolution? How did Martial Law Happen? 
  2. In my blog entry, "Thoughts on stillborn revolutions," I put forward Apolinario Mabini's definition of a revolution, and proposed other possible definitions. 
  3. From writers such as the Leon Ma. Guerrero and Lew Gleeck come some thoughts on our political culture, and how martial law was made possible because of it.
  4. An interesting concept introduced by historian Mina Roces is that of "malakas" and "mahina," and how the public reacts to perceptions of one or the other.
  5. In 2010 I shared this reflection on power: its attractions, and temptations.
  6. An interesting entry is this one, on the making and unmaking of Edsa in the national memory:
  7. II. The road to Martial Law and living under dictatorship
  8. This is a chapter I wrote for an AIM publication, summarizing the development of our politics and society from independence to martial law and after:
  9. This is an article on the era in which Marcos proclaimed martial law:
  10. Marcos was a keen student of history, and sought, by writing an official diary, to put down for posterity his version and justification, of events:
  11. What was it like to live under martial law? Writer Charlson Ong published his reflections in 1999; blogger Noami Dado did so, more recently.
  12. III. From Martial Law to Edsa
  13. For the 10th anniversary of Edsa, I wrote this account of the rise and fall of the Martial Law regime, and the various forces contending to replace it: