References: Sample Matching in Survey Research

Selected links to descriptions and critiques of sample matching and non-probability polling, and regarding survey sampling more generally, for background and context re @UpshotNYT / @CBSNews and others' use of @YouGovUS access panel for 2014 election forecasting. Work in progress - HELP!


  1. Contents
         • Sample matching: Conceptualization and implementation
         • Some important works on survey sampling theory and practice 
         • AAPOR reports and statements on non-probability sampling
         • Comparative evaluations of probability and non-probability sample surveys

    References are listed chronologically within each section


    Seminal articles by Don Rubin dating to the early 1970s (two of which are noted in the next section) are updated in
    Rubin, Donald B. 2006. Matched Sampling for Causal Effects. New York: Cambridge University Press. 

    Doug Rivers, chief of @YouGovUS, helped create the first probability-based Web polling in the 1990s at Knowledge Networks (initially called InterSurvey) before applying the sample-matching technique to non-probability online access panels at Polimetrix, now part of YouGov. 
         • Rivers, Douglas. 2006. Sample Matching: Representative Sampling from Internet Panels. Palo Alto, CA: Polimetrix, Inc. 
         • Rivers, Douglas. 2007. Sampling for Web Surveys. Paper presented at the 2007 Joint Statistical Meetings, Salt Lake City, Utah, July-August. (Multiple sources cite a Rivers paper for 2007 JSM with a slightly different title: "Sample Matching for Web Surveys: Theory and Application." It is not clear to me if this is the same or a substantially different paper.)
         • Rivers, Douglas, and Delia Bailey. 2009. Inferences from Matched Samples in the 2008 U.S. National ElectionsProceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section of the American Statistical Association, Joint Statistical Meeting 2009.


    The links above include their own typically extensive lists of references (which may or may not be available online, or with/without subscriptions/fees); this section focuses on landmark publications and broad overviews.

    Kiær, Anders N. 1897. The Representative Method of Statistical Surveys. 1976 reprint and English translation. Oslo: Central Bureau of Statistics Norway. See also 1895, 1901: Proceedings, Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute.

    Bowley, Arthur L. 1926. Measurement of Precision Attained in Sampling. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute. (I am not finding an English translation online; the linked article is in French.)

    1945-48 debate in POQ:
         • Hansen, Morris H., and Philip M. Hauser. 1945. Area Sampling: Some Principles of Sample Design. Public Opinion Quarterly 9:183-193
         • Meier, Norman C., and Cletus J. Burke. 1947. Laboratory Tests of Sampling Techniques. Public Opinion Quarterly 11:586-593.
         • Banks, Seymour, Norman C. Meier, and Cletus J. Burke. 1948. Laboratory Tests of Sampling Techniques: Comment and Rejoinders. Public Opinion Quarterly 12:316-324.

    Deming, W. Edwards. 1950. Some Theory of Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Cochran, William G. 1953. Sampling Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

    Hansen, Morris H., William N. Hurwitz, and William G. Madow. 1953. Sample Survey Methods and Theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Kish, Leslie. 1965. Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Rubin, Donald B. 1973. Matching to Remove Bias in Observational StudiesBiometrics 29(1):159-183 (with printer’s correction note 30, p. 728) and “The Use of Matched Sampling and Regression Adjustment to Remove Bias in Observational Studies.” Biometrics 29(1): 184-203.

    Rosenbaum, Paul R., and Donald B. Rubin. 1983. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika 70(1):41-55.

    Frankel, Martin R., and Frankel, Lester R. 1987. Fifty Years of Survey Sampling in the United States. Public Opinion Quarterly 51 Part 2:S127–38.

    Couper, Mick P. 2000. Web Surveys: A Review of Issues and ApproachesPublic Opinion Quarterly 64:464-494. 

    Rosenbaum, Paul R. 2010. Design of Observational Studies. New York: Springer.

    Brick, J. Michael. 2011. The Future Of Survey SamplingPublic Opinion Quarterly 75(5):872–88.


    American Association for Public Opinion Research. 2010. Opt-In Online Panel Task Force Report. Published at March 24, 2010.

    American Association for Public Opinion Research. 2012. AAPOR Statement: Understanding a "credibility interval: and how it differs from the margin of sampling error in a public opinion poll. Prepared by AAPOR Ad Hoc Committee on Credibility Interval (Robert Santos, Trent Buskirk, Andrew Gelman).

    American Association for Public Opinion Research. 2013. Report on Non-Probability Sampling. Published at May 17, 2013, and updated June 22, 2013. For a summary and dialogue see:
         Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology 1(2):90-143, November 2013 
         • Comments: Richard Valliant | Douglas Rivers | Carol A. Gotway Crawford | George Terhanian | Gary Langer (including review of sampling debates in early survey research history)
         • Baker, Reg, et al: Rejoinder

    American Association for Public Opinion Research. 2014. The Critical Role of Transparency & Standards in Today's World of Polling and Opinion Research. Issued Aug. 1, 2014, by AAPOR President Michael W. Link.


    Chang, LinChiat, and Jon A. Krosnick. 2009. National surveys via RDD telephone interviewing versus the Internet: Comparing sample representativeness and response quality. Public Opinion Quarterly 73(4):641–78.

    Yeager, David S., Jon A. Krosnick, LinChiat Chang, Harold S. Javitz, Matthew S. Levendusky, Alberto Simpser, and Rui Wang. 2011. Comparing the accuracy of RDD telephone surveys and Internet surveys conducted with probability and non-probability samples. Public Opinion Quarterly 75(4):709-747. 

    Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Brian F. Schaffner. 2014. Does Survey Mode Still Matter? Findings from a 2010 Multi-Mode ComparisonPolitical Analysis 22:285-303. 

    tip of the @mikemokr chapeau to @MasabuAida for suggested additions