Naturalised Chinese in British settler colonies of the Pacific Rim, 1860 to 1920

Paper presented at Colonial Formations: Connections and Collisions conference, University of Wollongong, 23 November 2016

  1. Stay tuned for tweets of my talk on Chinese naturalisation in 19th-century British settler colonies at #colonialformations. #chinozhist https://t.co/VLWVC2XTdN
    Stay tuned for tweets of my talk on Chinese naturalisation in 19th-century British settler colonies at #colonialformations. #chinozhist pic.twitter.com/VLWVC2XTdN
  2. Project was inspired by realisation that many ’notable' 19th c. Chinese in Oz were naturalised, but history of Chinese natz not written. https://t.co/ymUTO7Nbb0
    Project was inspired by realisation that many ’notable' 19th c. Chinese in Oz were naturalised, but history of Chinese natz not written. pic.twitter.com/ymUTO7Nbb0
  3. Natz mostly discussed in context of Chinese restriction, but I want to understand what natz meant in the everyday lives of Chinese settlers. https://t.co/E5d3wxTh11
    Natz mostly discussed in context of Chinese restriction, but I want to understand what natz meant in the everyday lives of Chinese settlers. pic.twitter.com/E5d3wxTh11
  4. Research will link legislation with lives: natz law + political discourse > policy + administration > individual + community experience. https://t.co/VAz8DjMFv4
    Research will link legislation with lives: natz law + political discourse > policy + administration > individual + community experience. pic.twitter.com/VAz8DjMFv4
  5. New South Wales is my main case study – comparative + transnational focus puts it in contexts of 'Cantonese Pacific' and British Empire. https://t.co/U5SFJ6F3ox
    New South Wales is my main case study – comparative + transnational focus puts it in contexts of 'Cantonese Pacific' and British Empire. pic.twitter.com/U5SFJ6F3ox
  6. I’m comparing NSW with British Columbia and New Zealand – similarities offer the possibility of understanding why NSW took path it did. https://t.co/rSNpcevBi6
    I’m comparing NSW with British Columbia and New Zealand – similarities offer the possibility of understanding why NSW took path it did. pic.twitter.com/rSNpcevBi6
  7. Natz law + its relationship to anti-Chinese policies in different colonies was complex and changing over late 19th c. Let’s have a look! https://t.co/i3yfDtChlI
    Natz law + its relationship to anti-Chinese policies in different colonies was complex and changing over late 19th c. Let’s have a look! pic.twitter.com/i3yfDtChlI
  8. NSW was the only Australian colony to prohibit Chinese natz by law. 3 others stopped it in practice, while 2 kept going until 1903. https://t.co/1eX5YpfDtu
    NSW was the only Australian colony to prohibit Chinese natz by law. 3 others stopped it in practice, while 2 kept going until 1903. pic.twitter.com/1eX5YpfDtu
  9. First Chinese natz I’ve found in Australia was in Melbourne in 1854. First in NSW was Amoy-born Yan Sout from Grafton in 1867. https://t.co/Z3oyZy9wLw
    First Chinese natz I’ve found in Australia was in Melbourne in 1854. First in NSW was Amoy-born Yan Sout from Grafton in 1867. pic.twitter.com/Z3oyZy9wLw
  10. C’wealth of Australia introduced natz legislation in 1903, prohibiting natz of ‘natives of Asia’. No more Chinese natz until mid-20th. c. https://t.co/ZyGi2j0JT6
    C’wealth of Australia introduced natz legislation in 1903, prohibiting natz of ‘natives of Asia’. No more Chinese natz until mid-20th. c. pic.twitter.com/ZyGi2j0JT6
  11. In New Zealand, Chinese could be natz until 1908, but had to pay fees not paid by other applicants. Chinese natz began again in mid-20th c. https://t.co/aY9C9Ujw2U
    In New Zealand, Chinese could be natz until 1908, but had to pay fees not paid by other applicants. Chinese natz began again in mid-20th c. pic.twitter.com/aY9C9Ujw2U
  12. First Chinese natz in NZ was Appo Hocton of Nelson in 1852 – 2 years earlier than in Australia! But next natz not until 1866. https://t.co/V5diczW0O8
    First Chinese natz in NZ was Appo Hocton of Nelson in 1852 – 2 years earlier than in Australia! But next natz not until 1866. pic.twitter.com/V5diczW0O8
  13. There was no prohibition of Chinese natz in British Columbia, under colonial or federal law. But franchise was withheld from Chinese in BC. https://t.co/zv9lD52n3s
    There was no prohibition of Chinese natz in British Columbia, under colonial or federal law. But franchise was withheld from Chinese in BC. pic.twitter.com/zv9lD52n3s
  14. Working out first Chinese natz in Canada has been tricky! Research so far suggests Lee Chang of Victoria, BC, in 1863 + another unknown man. https://t.co/6MgrXlEstu
    Working out first Chinese natz in Canada has been tricky! Research so far suggests Lee Chang of Victoria, BC, in 1863 + another unknown man. pic.twitter.com/6MgrXlEstu
  15. NSW was unique in taking legislative route to prevent Chinese natz – yet about 950 Chinese men were naturalised from 1850s to 1880s. https://t.co/Yzz69YOlxb
    NSW was unique in taking legislative route to prevent Chinese natz – yet about 950 Chinese men were naturalised from 1850s to 1880s. pic.twitter.com/Yzz69YOlxb
  16. Chinese Regulation & Restriction Act 1861 (NSW) brought in poll tax, tonnage limits and stopped Chinese natz. Repealed in 1867. https://t.co/iH2aGSRgfu
    Chinese Regulation & Restriction Act 1861 (NSW) brought in poll tax, tonnage limits and stopped Chinese natz. Repealed in 1867. pic.twitter.com/iH2aGSRgfu
  17. Influx of Chinese Restriction Act 1881 (NSW) brought back poll tax and tonnage restrictions. Exemptions for those who were British subjects. https://t.co/FQFM0jQ3G7
    Influx of Chinese Restriction Act 1881 (NSW) brought back poll tax and tonnage restrictions. Exemptions for those who were British subjects. pic.twitter.com/FQFM0jQ3G7
  18. Chinese Restriction & Regulation Act 1888 (NSW) increased poll tax and tonnage restrictions, stopped Chinese natz. British subjects exempt. https://t.co/Je54rrYciM
    Chinese Restriction & Regulation Act 1888 (NSW) increased poll tax and tonnage restrictions, stopped Chinese natz. British subjects exempt. pic.twitter.com/Je54rrYciM
  19. Slow but steady rate of Chinese natz in NSW from 1868 to 1881, but after 1881 Act things went crazy – 700+ in 3 years! https://t.co/XO3Pv0z6gj
    Slow but steady rate of Chinese natz in NSW from 1868 to 1881, but after 1881 Act things went crazy – 700+ in 3 years! pic.twitter.com/XO3Pv0z6gj
  20. Reasons Chinese men gave for seeking natz in NSW mostly about process of ‘settling': land purchase, business, family, vote, but... https://t.co/0l0n8Vx9fl
    Reasons Chinese men gave for seeking natz in NSW mostly about process of ‘settling': land purchase, business, family, vote, but... pic.twitter.com/0l0n8Vx9fl
  21. While most Chinese didn’t give mobility as a stated reason for natz, numbers following 1881 Act show clearly this was a prime motivation! https://t.co/pqzQksGUlc
    While most Chinese didn’t give mobility as a stated reason for natz, numbers following 1881 Act show clearly this was a prime motivation! pic.twitter.com/pqzQksGUlc
  22. Thanks for following along! I’d love to hear from anyone whose Chinese ancestor was naturalised in NSW, British Columbia or NZ, 1850s–1920. https://t.co/ae3IMeVeyE
    Thanks for following along! I’d love to hear from anyone whose Chinese ancestor was naturalised in NSW, British Columbia or NZ, 1850s–1920. pic.twitter.com/ae3IMeVeyE