Extubation Resources

Extubation refers to removal of the endotracheal tube (ETT). It is the final step in liberating a patient from mechanical ventilation. The Respiratory Care NetWork has provided information and resources on extubation.


  1. Diaphragm ultrasound as a new method to predict extubation outcome in mechanically ventilated patients
  2. This article explores the role of measuring diaphragmatic thickening and excursion via ultrasound to predict extubation outcomes.
  3. Extubation With or Without Spontaneous Breathing Trial
  4. This article explores the success rate of extubation without the need of a spontaneous breathing trial.
  5. Interventions to Improve Rates of Successful Extubation in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  6. This systematic review and meta-analysis incorporates interventions to improve rates of successful extubation in preterm infants.
  7. Endotracheal Extubation
  8. This video and article by The New England Journal of Medicine explains the indications and contraindications, as well as, the planning needed to optimize successful endotracheal extubation.
  9. 48-Hour Fluid Balance Does Not Predict a Successful Spontaneous Breathing Trial
  10. Both premature and delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and fluid balance could negatively influence extubation outcomes.
  11. Multidisciplinary Extubation Protocol in Cardiac Surgical Patients Reduces Ventilation Time and Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit
  12. Introduction of a multidisciplinary extubation protocol would reduce duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in ICU.
  13. Podcast:
  14. In this article, Dr. Gaies and coauthors examine the epidemiology of extubation failure in the pediatric critical care environment and what factors may be predictive of failed extubations in order to better understand how to make decisions around individual patients and improve upon extubation practices.