Articular Cartilage Injury In Athletes


  1. For over twenty years, we have regenerated damaged articular cartilage to help people preserve their natural bones and avoid artificial replacement. Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage and it is 2 to 4 mm thick. As opposed to most tissues, articular cartilage does not have blood vessels vessels, nerves, or lymphatics. It is composed of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM) with a sparse distribution of highly specific cells called chondrocytes. The ECM is principally made up of water, collagen, and proteoglycans, with other noncollagenous proteins and glycoproteins present in lesser amounts. 8, on the lookout for Together, these components help to retain water inside the ECM, which is crucial to maintain its unique physical properties.
  2. Though Hunziker reported longevity of this way of up to 5 years, 32 study by Steadman et al. suggests favourable outcome of up to 7 years. Second, this kind of study also revealed greater results in patients
  3. The chondrocyte is the resident cell type in articular cartilage. Chondrocytes are highly specialized, metabolically active cells that play an unique role in the development, maintenance, and restoration of the ECM. Chondrocytes result from mesenchymal stem cells and constitute about 2% from the total volume of articular cartilage. 2 Chondrocytes vary in shape, number, and size, depending on anatomical areas of the articular cartilage. The chondrocytes in the " light " zone are flatter and smaller and generally have a greater density than regarding the cells deeper in the matrix ( Number 2 ).
  4. In the deep layer, the pressure within the chondrocytes inside the same cartilage lacuna was different (Figure 10 ). Generally speaking, the greatest pressure change was observed in the uppermost chondrocytes and greatest absolute pressure in the lowermost chondrocytes. In the initial level of loading, intracellular pressure was smaller than the peripheral pressure, but that pressure increased as launching time increased, meanwhile peripheral pressure decreased gradually. The pressure in the liquid transformed periodically with loading time, being susceptible to a particular degree of hysteresis. Conversely, the distribution of pressure varied from internal to the periphery in the lowermost chondrocytes, basically corresponding to the load frequency. Therefore, chondrocytes at different positions within the same the cartilage lacuna exhibited different reactions to loading.
  5. T2 maps obtained in knee cartilage in a 51-year-old man after preliminar cruciate ligament repair show higher T2 values (yellow) in the medial (a) and lateral (b) tibiofemoral compartments, findings indicative of decay of the integrity and orientation of the collagen network. Maps were obtained at 3. 0 Capital t with a sagittal THREE DIMENSIONAL T2-weighted multiecho SE series (TR/TE = 9. 3/3. 1, 13. 5, twenty three. 9, 44. 8; restoration time = 1500 msec; field of view = 14 cm; matrix = 256 × 192; section thickness = 3 millimeter; bandwidth = 31. 25-kHz). Scale is in ms.