What is impact and what isn't?
For the purposes of the REF2014 impact cases studies, it is important to differentiate between net and gross impacts and non-impacts. So, we have to be careful not to over claim or make infeasible estimates (that cannot be corroborated) and should try to maximise the level of detail and specifics when asserting impacts. I've already mentioned the importance of providing evidence to support a theory of change from research outcomes and it is here where there is a danger of moving into the terrain of non-impact. Dissemination activities, on their own, without any follow on activity or evidence of take up outside of academia are likely to fall foul of all panels. Outline as clearly as you can the 'effect, change, or benefit' that your research has produced. Public outputs, like media coverage, will also need to go further than providing audience figures to trace change, whether on individuals, organisations or communities. Crucially, being perceived as an 'expert' in your field and providing expertise or advice is also insufficient to demonstrate impact. If that advice has led to the implementation of a new policy, new guidelines or changes to practice then it will move above the threshold detailed in Jane Tinkler's slide, below.